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Nursing of malnutrition


Common nursing diagnosis

1. Malnutrition is related with the insufficiency or over-consumption of heat and (or) protein.

2. The risk of infection. It is related with the decline of immunologic function.

3. Latent complication: hypoglycemia.

Nursing measure

1. The nursing for malnutrition

(1) Find out the pathogenic factors, such as improper feeding, disease, economic hardship and so on, it can be eliminated through nursing and medical treatment or by cooperation of community workers.

(2) Adjusting the diet: The adjustment of diet must from few to many and in proper sequence, in order to avoid the diarrhea and aggravate the gastrointestinal dysfunction. Choosing the food which can be easily digested and absorbed and with high-calorie and high protein. The methods of adjusting the diet: ①The mild malnutrition children should not change their original food quickly; and should be increased calorie in the original foundation and supply them with normal demand until their weights are close to normal situation; ②Children with moderate and severe malnutrition, their digestion and absorption function are disordered and their tolerance of food is poor, the supply of energy should be provided from a small number and increase gradually, wait until children's appetite and digestion function restore, they can be supplied with caloric higher than normal physiological requirements, and till their weights close to normal standard, by then, their normal physiological requirements will be restored; supplement vitamins and microelement, such as vegetable puree, fruit puree, meat puree and other nutrition food.

Give them medicines which help to digest according to doctor's advice, such as pepsin and zymine. When necessary, give them intramuscular injection of Nandrolone to accelerate the protein synthesis. And severe one can be transfused a few plasma, albumin, intravenous high-nutrient solution. The speed of transfusion must be slow and the volume should not be much.

2. Nursing for preventing the infection: Prevent respiratory tract infections, the indoor should maintain an appropriate temperature and humidity; pay attention to defending cold and keeping warm, not going to the public places often; strengthen care of nonnasality and skin; for those Severe malnutrition children, they can be transfused with fresh plasma or albumin to strengthen organism resistivity.

3. Nursing for hypoglycemia prevention: people who cannot take food should take venous inflow of dextrose solution according to doctor's advice; close observation of the disease, especially at night or in the early morning, children are easily suffering from hypoglycemia and causing dizziness, cold sweat, pale, unconscious and so on, and they should be take venous inflow of dextrose solution according to doctor's advice immediately.



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